Cataracts (Chinese version)

What is cataract

  • Cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye that affects vision. A cataract can occur in either or both eyes. It cannot spread from one eye to the other.
  • 白内障是指眼睛内的晶状体发生混浊并因此影响视力。白内障可以发生于单眼或双眼,但不会由一只眼蔓延到另一只眼。
  • The eye is like a camera.  The lens is a clear part of the eye that helps to focus light, or an image, on the retina.  The retina is like film in a camera.  It is the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye.
  • 眼睛好比是一架照相机。晶状体是眼内一个透明的部分,用来将光线和影像聚焦于视网膜;视网膜是位于眼球后部的感光组织,就像是照相机中的底片。

Who is at risk of getting cataracts?

  • Most cataracts are related to aging. Cataracts are very common in older people.  By age 80, more than half of all people either have a cataract or have had cataract surgery.
  • 大部分白内障与年龄相关,白内障在老年人中非常普遍。到了80岁,有超过一半以上的正常老人患有白内障或已经接受了白内障手术。

What causes cataracts?
  • Aging changes in the protein of the lens
  • 晶状体中蛋白质发生老龄性改变
  • Family history
  • 家族史
  • Environmental factors such as exposure to sunlight
  • 环境性因素,例如暴露在日光下
  • Certain diseases such as diabetes
  • 某些疾病,例如糖尿病
  • Certain personal behaviours such as smoking
  • 某些个人行为,例如吸烟
  • Certain medications
  • 某些药物
  • Eye injury
  • 眼部外伤

How does it affect your vision?  What symptoms should you look for?
  • Cataract can cause
  • 白内障会引起
    • A general clouding on the vision like looking through a dirty car windshield. 
    • 视力的普遍下降,看东西好像透过一片脏的汽车挡风玻璃。
    • Glare and haloes, especially under bright light
    • 眩光或光晕,尤其在强光照射下
    • In inability to distinguish colours
    • 辨色障碍
    • Difficulty seeing at night
    • 夜间视物困难
  • It is painless
  • 白内障是无痛性的
  • As cataract progress, it can lead to rapid changes in glasses prescription
  • 随着白内障的进展,可以导致频繁的更换眼镜处方。

How is it diagnosed?
  • Cataracts are diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam by an eye care professional (ophthalmologist or optometrist)
  • 白内障需要由眼科保健专业人士(眼科医生或光师)进行全面的眼科检查确诊。

How is it treated?
  • The symptoms of early cataract may be improved with new eyeglasses, brighter lighting, anti-glare sunglasses, or magnifying lenses. 
  • 早期白内障的症状可以通过更换新眼镜,提高照明度,佩戴抗眩光眼镜或放大镜得以改善。
  • If these measures do not help, surgery is the only effective treatment.
  • 如果以上方法没有帮助,手术是唯一有效的治疗手段。
  • Cataract surgery is among the most highly perfected, safe and successful procedures in medicine.  More than 95% of patients have improved vision after surgery. Surgery involves removing the cloudy lens and replacing it with an artificial lens.
  • 白内障手术是最完美,安全,有效的医学手术之一。超过95%的病人视力在手术后得以提高。手术过程包括摘除混浊的晶状体和植入人工晶状体。

When is a cataract ready for surgery?
  • Surgery is indicated when vision loss interferes with your everyday activities, such as driving, reading, or watching TV. 
  • 当白内障引起的视力障碍影响到患者的日常生活,例如驾车、阅读、看电视等,就应该考虑手术治疗。
  • Sometimes a cataract should be removed even if it does not cause problems with your vision. For example, a cataract should be removed if it prevents examination or treatment of another eye problem, such as age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy. 
  • 有时尽管白内障并没有引起视力障碍也需要考虑摘除。比如,当白内障影响了对其他眼科疾病的检查和治疗时,像老年性黄斑变性或糖尿病性视网膜病变,也应该予以摘除。

How can we prevent cataract?
  • Wear sunglasses and hat to block out UV light
  • 佩戴太阳镜和凉帽阻挡紫外线
  • If you smoke, stop smoking
  • 吸烟者请戒烟
  • Good nutrition including foods high in antioxidants such as green leafy vegetables and fruits
  • 优良的营养,包含有高抗氧化剂的食物,例如绿叶蔬菜和水果。

How often should you go for eye exam?
  • Everyone over the age 65 should have their eye examined annually and this is covered by OHIP
  • 65岁以上老人应该每年进行一次眼科检查,这是由OHIP保险涵盖的。
  • Those under 65 should also have their eyes examined every 1 to 2 years
  • 65岁以下人群应该每1-2年进行一次眼科检查。


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